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2023 Update #1
2023 Update #2
IV. Deploy EV Charging Access and Infrastructure

Fueling EVs require a paradigm shift on how we view transportation, buildings and energy. It is a departure from the traditional combustion vehicle gas station model. Electricity access is ubiquitous and any electric outlet is a potential fueling station. However, modern long-range light-, medium- and heavy-duty EVs often require specific EV charging stations with hardware and software to meet changing needs. The perceived lack of charging stations is cited as one of the top barriers to purchase of electric vehicles. 

Each EV use case (such as public vs fleet, light-duty vs heavy-duty, long-range vs short trips) requires a different charging infrastructure approach. Thus, planning for and implementing EV charging stations requires addressing unique use case needs and removing barriers. 

Local governments can install and own EV charging equipment and adopt policies to encourage private investment in fleet, workplace, and public charging infrastructure.​ The following are key considerations for local governments that are looking to support electric vehicle charging infrastructure deployment.

Go Deeper on Infrastructure



A. Applications of City/County Charging Infrastructure

1. Fleet Charging for City/County Vehicles

One option for local governments is to install charging stations to support their fleets’ electrification specifically and not designate them for public use. This ensures the stations are always available for their use.




2. Workplace Charging for City and County Employees

Workplace charging is one way to encourage and support employees who drive electric. It extends their all-electric driving range, enabling those with long commutes or those who lack home charging to drive electric. According to the Department of Energy, an employee with access to workplace charging is six times more likely to drive electric than the average worker. It can attract visitors as well. It can be free or have a subscription fee. Additionally, daytime charging can easily take advantage of low-cost, environmentally friendly solar power.






3. Community Charging on Public Property

Cities can spur EV adoption in the community by providing public access to EV charging stations. There are examples of both free and pay-to-charge systems.



Strategies to Deploy City/County Charging Infrastructure

1. Charging as a Service for City/County Vehicles

Charging as a service is another option to consider, where a third party owns, operates, and maintains the infrastructure. 




2. Permit Curbside Charger Installation in Public Right of Way

A challenge for some businesses and residences is the lack of off-street parking at which to install charging stations. Some cities have addressed this issue by permitting the installation of curbside EV chargers.




3. Streetlight and Power Pole Charging Access

Cities can use the electricity already wired for LED converted light posts to easily allow for EV charging. There are devices that can retrofit a light post in a cost-effective manner to allow for charging of the electricity.



  • Charlotte Street Light Charging PoleVolt is pioneering EV charging infrastructure technology that could provide a solution for people that lack the off-street parking needed for home charging systems. The new solution, PoleVolt, uses existing streetlight infrastructure to slash the costs associated with installing charging stations by as much as fifty percent. Additional information.

  • Los Angeles, CA: The Bureau of Street Lighting has installed Level 2 electric vehicle charging stations on 284 of the streetlights in the City of Los Angeles. 

B. Policies to Enable Private Sector Charging Infrastructure Deployment

1. EV-Readiness Policies

EV-readiness policy requires a percentage of parking spaces built to include electrical infrastructure that enables future EV charging. Requiring EV infrastructure to be planned for at the time of new construction is one of the most impactful, cost-effective actions a city can take to facilitate the adoption of  EVs. It dramatically reduces the cost to install infrastructure post-construction.

Nationwide, cities have passed EV make-ready policies requiring between 20% and 100% of new commercial parking spaces to be prepared for the installation of Level II charging. Many states and local governments have added EV provisions to their building codes, local ordinances and zoning requirements.

There are different tiers of EV-ready policy. EV Capable means installing enough electrical capacity at the panel to support future EV parking spots and raceway to the parking spots. EV Ready includes all the components of EV capable plus adds in a requirement for wiring and a junction box or 240 outlet. EVSE installed means there is a fully functional charging station installed. 


Example EV Ready Policies:


2. Multi-Unit Dwelling Charger Support and Incentives 

On average, 80% of charging happens at home or at the workplace. Low or no access to home charging is a well-established barrier to EV adoption. For the roughly 26% of Americans that live in multi-unit dwellings (MUDs) like apartment buildings and condos, the majority do not have a power outlet accessible necessary for home charging. As noted in the previous section, it is cost-prohibitive to install the infrastructure post-construction (pricing referenced above), with the result that most MUD residents are denied the benefits of home charging. This underscores the importance of a city or county taking make-ready policies to ensure equity and accessibility for all community members. When new MUD projects are being considered, installation of shared charging equipment at MUD developments should be required or encouraged. 



3. Streamlined Charger Permitting Process

Cities and counties can make the permitting approval process easier for the installation of EV chargers with strategies such as one-day turnaround, online design review services, and expedited inspection for EV charger permits.




4. Reduce/Waive Permitting Fees for Charging Infrastructure

Cities and counties can reduce the cost of installation of charging by waiving the permitting fees for installation of charging equipment. 




5. City/County Charging Station Installation Guidelines and Best Practices

Cities and counties can clear up any confusion around how to go about installing EV charging equipment by providing clear expectations to stakeholders such as step-by-step instructions or installation guidelines. The city/county can maintain hard copies of the resources and digital copies on their website for installation at different types of sites.



6. Enable Workplace Charging for Private Sector Employees

Encouraging workplace charging in your community is another way to build infrastructure. When new projects are being considered for permitting, encourage the property/business owner to consider installing workplace charging. The availability of workplace charging is the third most significant driver of electric vehicle adoption behind vehicle model availability and public direct-current fast charging.




C. Best Practices to Support Charging Infrastructure

1. Ensure Interoperability and Open Standards

Primarily, interoperability refers to the ability for EV charging station network companies to use standard communications to allow charging stations to connect to multiple open networks. Open networks use standard communications to allow the owners of compliant charging stations to choose from multiple open networks. This allows owners of charging stations to choose from and switch between different open standards-based networking providers on the same piece of hardware without the need for significant upgrades to existing hardware.


Open Charge Point Protocols (OCPP) are the internationally recognized standards established by the Open Charge Alliance. These standards are intended to ensure interoperability between the main components of EV charging:

  • the vehicles, 

  • charging infrastructure, 

  • charging software, 

  • and the electric grid. 


Interoperability and open standards provide reliable charging experiences and long-term flexibility as vehicles, charging infrastructure, and charging software evolves over time. Thus, OCPP compliance is often a requirement of EV charger grants and rebate programs.   



2. Pair Charging Infrastructure with Renewables 

Several companies offer solar canopies to generate the power for charging stations. Solar canopies have the additional benefit of providing an attractive, shady parking place so cars are sheltered from the sun. Battery backup systems can be added to solar canopies co-located at critical facilities such as water treatment plants or hospitals. EV chargers paired with solar and battery storage can also provide off-grid charging where grid interconnection is an issue. 



3. Incorporate Accessibility

The U.S. Access Board | Design Recommendations for Accessible Electric Vehicle Charging Stations. This technical assistance document from The U.S. Access Board, an independent federal agency that issues accessibility guidelines under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), Architectural Barriers Act (ABA), Rehabilitation Act of 1973, and other laws, was developed to assist in the design and construction of electric vehicle (EV) charging stations that are accessible to and usable by people with disabilities.

4. Free Up Access to Chargers with  Instructional Signage and Code Enforcement

One challenge for public EV charging is that access to chargers can be blocked by non-EVs or EVs that are not actively charging. Local governments can discourage this from happening by ensuring adequate instructional signage that only actively-charging EVs (determined by whether or not they are plugged in) should be parked in those spots. Some states, such as Florida and Colorado outlaw non-EVs from parking in EV-designated spaces, but local enforcement may not happen. Enforcement can be encouraged and in states without such legislation, it can be added to code.





4. Standardize Way-finding Signs for Drivers to Locate Chargers 

Many potential EV drivers fear not being able to find public charging when they may need it. Local governments can help increase the visibility of the availability of EV chargers and also help EV drivers better utilize existing EV chargers by providing way-finding signs on the street for public charging stations. Additionally, EV charging locations can be made highly visible with signposts and painted parking spots. Efforts by the Central Florida Clean Cities Coalition are underway to get Florida highways designated as “Alternative Fuel Corridors” by the Federal Highway Administration. Local governments can support these efforts for the economic benefit of attracting EVs to local businesses or downtown areas offering charging stations.


5. Incorporate Resilience Planning

It is important to incorporate electric transportation in resilience planning for three primary reasons: 

  1. Adequate charging infrastructure needs to be deployed along evacuation routes to ensure that personal and fleet EVs can evacuate safely;

  2. First responder and essential service EVs need access to charging infrastructure backed up by battery storage to ensure accessibility during power outages (such installations can also serve as an emergency charging hubs for communications and other electronic devices); 

  3. With the proper charging technology and building electrical system integration, stored energy in fleet EVs, especially medium- and heavy-duty vehicles such as transit and school buses can be used to power essential services such as shelters.


2023 Update #3
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